Counties in Virginia and How They Were Formed

  1. Orange – 1734-1738
  2. Frederick –   formed from Orange 1738-1772
  3. Augusta  – formed  from Frederick 1738-1770 – Organized in 1745
  4. Botetourt – formed from Augusta 1772
  5. Fincastle – formed from Botetourt  1772-1776
  6. Montgomery – was formed from Fincastle 1776
  7. Washington – formed from Fincastle in 1776
  8. Kentucky – from Fincastle 1776-1780
  9. Smyth – from Washington  1832
  10. Tazewell – from Washington 1799
  11. Russell – from Washington 1786
  12. Buchanan – from Washington 1758
  13. Scott – from Washington 1814
  14. Lee – from  Washington 1792
  15. Wise –  from Lee, Scott and Russell 1856
  16. Dickenson – from Wise, Buchanan & Russell  1880.

Originally, all the land belonging to Virginia west of the Blue Ridge was embraced in the County of Orange.  In 1738, Orange county west of the Blue Ridge was divided into two counties, Frederick and Augusta; and Augusta included the territory now comprising Wise.  In 1769, Augusta County was divided and all the land southwest from Lexington was called Botetourt County, named in honor of the then governor of Virginia, Lord Botetourt; and all the extreme southwestern portion of the State as well as the whole state of Kentucky was then in Botetourt County.  Later Botetourt County was divided and Fincastle County, including all the Western Portion was cut off.  In 1777, Fincastle in turn was divided into three counties, Montgomery, Washington, and Kentucky.  Washington County, Virginia, is said to have been the first political unit ever named in honor of George Washington.  From Washington County were formed the following counties: Russell in 1786, Lee in 1792, and Scott in 1814.  Wise County was formed by taking parts of Russell, Lee and Scott Counties.  It had been estimated that the new county of Wise had but 3 percent of its land under cultivation; the remainder was in wilderness.

The above was taken from the book, , by Luther F. Addington.

I would like to add  that Dickenson County, “Virginia’s Baby” was taken from Wise, Russell and Buchanan Counties and named after W. J Dickenson. (F.S.)

Researching Virginia Records

Many of our members have requested suggestions on how to do genealogical research in Virginia records. The following is an attempt to list the highlights of records that are available throughout Virginia.

Individuals using Virginia records are very fortunate, as few of the records dealing with Virginia citizens have been lost due to fire or other catastrophes. The majority of the records in the courthouses of all the 99 Virginia counties are virtually intact.


By Rhonda Robertson

Many of our members have requested suggestions on how to do genealogical research in Virginia records. The following is an attempt to list the highlights of records that are available throughout Virginia.

Individuals using Virginia records are very fortunate, as few of the records dealing with Virginia citizens have been lost due to fire or other catastrophes. The majority of the records in the courthouses of all the 99 Virginia counties are virtually intact.

The first step in doing genealogical research is, of course, to talk with the oldest members of your family. They have, not only the factual knowledge of your history, but wonderful stories that add so much to your research and your understanding of those ancestors who are but dim photographs in ornate frames or photo albums.

Marriage Records

Marriage Bonds: From the earliest days of the Virginia colonies through 1853, individuals were required to obtain a marriage bond from the county of their residence. The concept of marriage bonds was derived from the old English custom of “publishing the banns”. The bond for a potential marriage was
posted by the father of either the bride or groom or some other close member of the family. The bond was $500, posted in either cash or property and was used to guarantee the forthcoming wedding. Virginia knew how to make money even then! Marriage Bonds are recorded from 1607 through 1853. Witnesses and individuals securing the bond are listed along with the prospective bride and groom, but no relationships to the couple are indicated. The date of the marriage bond is the date the bond was secured, not the date of the marriage. occasionally, a minister’s return is attached to the bond and if the bride or groom was underage, a “permission to marry” letter from the parents is also attached. Marriage Bond books and copies of the actual marriage bonds are on file in the Clerk’s Offices.

Marriage Licenses: in 1853, Virginia passed a law that Marriage Bonds would no longer be allowable to celebrate the rites of matrimony in Virginia. The new marriage license listed the names of the bridge and groom, their ages, sex, marital status, names of both sets of parents, the occupation of the groom, date the license was obtained, the place of residence and marriage and the
name of the minister. The requirement of all this additional information was a boon to genealogical research, providing a wealth of information in ‘register form. Also in the Clerk’s Office are the three-part Marriage Licenses. The names of the bride and groom are considered the first-part of the license. The second-part is the statistical information concerning the bride and groom. The third-part is the minister’s return, listing the date and place of the marriage and signed by him.

Land Records

From the formation of a county, through approximately the latter part of the 1800s, individuals recording land did so through a land entry-land survey process. In the 1700s there was no legal provision for the buying and selling of property through the recording of deeds. All property transactions were handled by land grant, land patent, bounty land warrant, Commissioner’s Certificate, etc.

Land was granted in large blocks, consisting of hundreds of thousands of acres, to land companies. In Southwest Virginia, land was granted primarily to the Loyal Land Company and the Ohio Land Company during the 1740s and 1750s. The companies sent surveyors and survey crews into this uncharted wilderness to survey and map their holdings. Maps were prepared by these surveyors and used by the company agents to sell land to the early settlers, site unseen. The company then issued a land patent to the purchaser. If the purchaser decided to sell the property, they merely wrote on the back of the patent to whom the property was transferred and the date of the transfer. Hence, property could be transferred many times between various individuals before it was actually ever entered officially into any record.

As counties were formed, individuals living in those counties were required to bring their patents, grants, etc. to the Courthouse and have them entered in the Land Entry Book. By entering your land you were requesting that the County Surveyor come and survey the property and enter it officially into the county records.

During the French and Indian War the English government granted large
blocks of land to soldiers in lieu of payment. Again, during the Revolutionary War, the newly established government of the United States could not afford to pay the majority of its soldiers, so land was granted for military service.

The award of land in acreage depended on the rank held by the soldier during the war. Normally, a private in the Revolutionary War received 400 acres. The location of the property was not specified on the land grant. The soldier could take the grant into any county and record 400 acres of unclaimed land.

Land Entry Books: Individuals living in the county at the time of its formation or moving into the county thereafter were required to record a Land Entry of their property. The source of the acquisition of the land was listed (grant, patent, etc.), the date of the acquisition, a description of the property. Unfortunately, many times the descriptions were only trees and rocks, but in many cases creeks, rivers and streams on which the property was located are mentioned.

Land Survey Books: After a land entry was recorded, a land survey was performed
by the County Surveyor, who was required to visit the property, record its most well known or visible boundaries. Many of the land surveys contains the names of neighboring property owners and other useful bits of information. The
callings given by the County Surveyor were sites and descriptions that would
have been well known to individuals living in the area during that time, but a mystery to those of us conducting research. The names of the neighboring
property owners is of particular interest, as the early settlers tended to buy
their property and settle in groups as generally there was a physical relationship between these people. Early settlers, like many in our area today, tended to settle in groups of inter-related families. occasionally, property was recorded in the land entry books under one name, but the property was not surveyed in
that same name. Either the individual withdrew the request and decided to record their entries elsewhere or the property was sold before the survey was completed.

Deeds: After the legal provisions for the recording of deeds was initiated, counties began to record the buying and selling of property. Deeds list the name of the buyer, the seller, and any other individuals involved in the transfer of property, and the date of the transfer. The callings or description of the property can again provide the location and immediate neighbors. occasionally, deeds can also be used to establish relationships between individuals. Many of the earliest settlers died without leaving wills so their property was automatically divided between their heirs. The property division was not recorded until the heirs sold their share of the estate.

Court Records

Wills: The Last Will and Testament and Estate Appraisals are recorded in county Will books. Wills give a concise picture of the property, both real and personal, owned by an individual as well as their bequests. Wills are excellent tools in proving familial relationships. Estate Appraisals and Sales of personal property are also recorded in the will books. Estate sales list the items of property owned by the individual, the debts owed and to whom. Items of the estate that were sold, list the amount the item brought and the buyer. Widows of the deceased could be left out of the will, if it was the desire of the husband. He could also dictate whether or not she could remarry. The normal procedure for remarriagebeing the forfeiture of her interest in her husband’s estate. Wills in Virginia are recorded beginning in 1607.

Court Orders: In counties where records have been destroyed by fire or other means, court orders can be used to establish numerous items. If deed books have been destroyed, the court order book list the order for the official recordation of deeds. The order for the recording of Wills are also to be found in the Court Order Books. The cost of building or remodeling the courthouse were recorded, the cost of food, lodging and drink were required for anyone requesting a tavern license. If an individual wanted to build a grist mill on their property, a notice had to be posted on the front of the courthouse with a hearing date to give anyone opposed to the license a chance to appear. The pay scale for officers of the court, the deputy sheriff and travel expenses were recorded. Individuals convicted of crimes were also listed along with their offense. Taxes, paid by individuals, in the form of road construction and maintenance were recorded.

Birth Records: Beginning in 1853, Virginia passed a law requiring the recordation of births within. any given county. The birth registers are on file in each clerk’s office beginning in 1853 and ending sometime in the late 1880s or early 1890s.

Births were again recorded beginning in June of 1912 through 1919 when they were required to be sent to the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Health Department. The early birth registers contain the name of the child, date of birth, place of birth, name of father and mother, and father’s occupation. The name of the individual recording the birth and their relationship to the child is also listed.

Death Records: Death records, as with birth, were required to be recorded beginning in 1853 and continuing until the latter 1880s or early 1890s. There is a blankspace between 1890 and 1912 when no births or deaths were recorded. Deaths were again recorded beginning in June of 1912 and continuing through 1919. The death registers list the name of the deceased, place and date of death, cause of death, age, name of father and mother, and the recorder of the information.

Military Records

French and Indian War Service: No repository of records from the French and Indian War currently exists. only a few scattered records exist for the soldiers of that war. Most service information is found in the Court Order books of counties.

Revolutionary War: Soldiers and officers serving in the Revolutionary War, have military records on file in the National Archives in Washington, DC. In the early 1800s, Congress passed legislation that provided a pension for indigent soldiers who could prove service in the Revolutionary War. In each county of Virginia, former soldiers petitions for pension are on file. Those pensions are also included in a packet bearing that soldiers name in the National Archives.

Copies of these service records can be obtained from the National Archives or by visiting the county in which the petition was filed. The pension applications contain the date and place of birth of the soldier, the county and state in which he enlisted or was drafted and a detailed account of his military service, battles, etc. Whether or not pension was granted is also noted. These pension applications represent only a fraction of the soldiers that served. If a soldier was killed in battle or denied before the pension provision was enacted or if the former soldier was able to support himself, then no pension application is on file. Pensions for Revolutionary War service for widows was enacted a few years later. Detailed lists of military units and soldiers are on file in the National Archives. Recently, the military records and pension applications for the Revolutionary War have all been microfilmed and can be ordered from companies specializing in the renting of microfilm and sometimes through inter-library loan. Rolls of microfilm can also be purchased for private use directly from the National Archives.

War of 1812: Military records for the soldiers and sailors of the War of 1812 are also on file in the National Archives. Like the Revolutionary War, pension was again granted for indigent soldiers and are on file in the counties in which they resided at the time of application or the National Archives. These pension applications unfortunately are not as detailed as those of the Revolutionary War. The military records are microfilmed.

Civil War: Unlike previous wars, records from the Civil War are handled quite differently. Pension and military records for soldiers of the Union army and navy are on file at the National Archives in Washington, DC. Southern soldiers and sailors, on the other hand, are on file at the courthouses in each county were they resided. The South never surrendered the papers or documents pertaining to the military service of its soldiers. Pension applications for Union soldiers are printed on blue paper and applications for Southern soldiers are on gray paper. These pension applications contain a great deal of genealogical information from their birth place and date to their family history and the details of the military service.

Various Sources

Virginia Correspondence: Early records dealing with Southwest Virginia in the form of correspondence to the Governor and the House of D41egates are preserved in the multi-volume Calendar of Virginia State Papers and Henning’s Statutes at Large. Most of these records have been published in hard copy form and can be ordered through interlibrary loan.

Virginia State Library: An excellent source of genealogical and historical information. The Virginia State Library contains the collections of many of Virginia’s foremost genealogists and historians. Of particular interest to Southwest Virginia is the collection of Gordon Aronhime, formerly of Bristol.

The Virginia State Library has microfilm copies of all the court records from all the counties of Virginia: Wills, Deeds, Court Orders, Birth Registers, Death Registers, Miscellaneous papers, Marriage Registers, etc. Along with this collection are the correspondence between Virginia citizens and the House of Delegates. All this material can be accessed through inter-library loan.

Alderman Library: The University of Virginia contains the genealogical and historical material dealing with Southwest Virginia. The official repository for the records, and files of the W.P.A. project papers from the 1930s dealing with Southwest Virginia. Boxes and boxes of interviews with area residents are available for photocopying and research.

Virginia Genealogist: Published for over twenty years, an excellent source of unpublished material. Back issues are available on microfilm and current issues are available on microfilm or hard copy.

Virginia Magazine of History and Biography: No longer published, but an excellent source of early Virginia records and documents. Many of the items published inthis magazine were from private collections. A complete copy of the entire series can be found at the Virginia State Library.

College of William and Mary Quarterly: Still published by the College of William and Mary. wonderful source of Virginia information dealing mostly with the Eastern part of Virginia, with occasional mentions and items dealing with Southwest Virginia.

Census Records: Census records are available on microfilm beginning with 1790,the first census through 1920, which has recently been released. The census records for 1790 through 1840 contain only a minute amount of information. The name of the head of the household is listed, but only number of females and males are listed according to their age groups. Beginning in 1850, entire households were listed by name, age, place of birth and occupation. Notations were made as to physical disabilities on this census. As each new census was taken every ten years, more and more information was added until the 1920 census is an enormous volume of genealogical data.

Draper Manuscripts: A collection of letters written to Lyman C. Draper in the middle to latter 1800s from individuals who had lived in Southwest Virginia. These letters were solicited and compiled in conjunction with a history he was planning to write about Daniel Boone. These collected letters comprise approximately 50 rolls of microfilm belonging to the Wisconsin Historical Society.

Tax Records: Tax records for each county in Virginia are on file at the Virginia State Library. These contain only a minimal amount of information, normally listing only the name of the individual being taxed and the amount of their tax. A woman was only listed on the tax rolls for one year and that was the year of her widowhood.

County Petitions: on file at the Virginia State Library are county petitions filed with the Governor or House of Delegates. These petitions range from the formation of a county to the changing of county lines. Individuals signed their names to these petitions and the signatures are preserved on these original documents. Copies of these petitions can be obtained by writing to the Virginia State Library. During the early days of our country, many people were illiterate and there were people who made their living traveling from home to home and place to place, teaching individuals to sign their names to official documents.


You now have the basic tools to begin the search for your ancestors. The real reward of your search is the uncovering of bits and pieces of their lives and hints of their personalities. Through them we can participate in the founding and settlement of our country. So treasure each little of bit of information you find about them, no matter how seemingly insignificant, for it gives you just a little more insight into who they were and ultimately a glimpse into ourselves.

Petition of People for Voting Place

The Petition of the undersigned citizens of Russell County, respectfully represents that you petitioners labour under great disadvantages and inconvenience in relation to the exercise of the right of Suffrate; that they or most of them live a considerable distance from any place of holding an election; in fact many of them live between thirty and forty miles from any place where an election is held, and cannot exercise rights conferred on them by the Constitution of our State from the facts as above stated, and from others that might be given. The Prayer of your petitioners is that at the Home of William Robertson Esq. at a place called the Pound Fork of Sandy River in the County of Russell and as in duty bound your petitioners will ever pray, etc.


Lebanon Russell County, Virginia October 1844

The Petition of the undersigned citizens of Russell County, respectfully represents that you petitioners labour under great disadvantages and inconvenience in relation to the exercise of the right of Suffrate; that they or most of them live a considerable distance from any place of holding an election; in fact many of them live between thirty and forty miles from any place where an election is held, and cannot exercise rights conferred on them by the Constitution of our State from the facts as above stated, and from others that might be given.  The Prayer of  your petitioners is that at the Home of William Robertson Esq. at a  place called the Pound Fork of Sandy River in the County of Russell and as in duty bound your petitioners will ever pray, etc.

William Roberson Esq.

James Roberson

Anthony Street

Nimrod Street

David Mullins

Elias Green

William Green

John Roberson

Wm R. Fraley

Wm H. Roberson

Alexander Hall, Jr.

Isam Hall, Jr.

John H. Morgain

James Mullins Sherds son

Hardin Hall

Joseph Briant, Jr.

James Short

William Ingle

William Hollifield

William Short

Alexander Short

Thomas Burchfield

Issac Back

Joseph Church

Lewis Black

Solomon Black

Alexander Hale, Sr.

Nathan Engle

Isham Hall, Sr.

Jonathan Bolling

William Taylor

Abner Russell

Wilson McKinney

James Mullins-Pound

Mathew S. Roberson

John Hall

James Stacey

William Hall

Eli Mullins

William Sowards

Wesley Sowards

Solomon Mullins – Pound

James Mullins

Daniel Doston

Bartly Rose

Alexander Russell

Wm Short, Sr.

Wm Church

Old Names of Occupations and Their Meanings

Dan Burrows provides a list of old occupation names and their meanings. This list of terms is helpful for understanding old books and wills.

Giver of charity to the  needy
Secretary or stenographer
A Soldier mechanic who does repairs
Female writer
Keeper of an Inn
One who works with brass
Beer manufacturer
Metal worker
One who filled up cracks in ships or windows
Carriage maker
Dealer or trader; one who makes or sells candles; retailer of groceries
Wig maker
Clergyman, cleric
The servant of a salesman who stood at the door to invite customers
Coal miner
Peddler of Books
One who makes or repairs vessels made of staves & hoops, such as casks, barrels, tubs, etc.
Shoemaker, originally any leather worker using leather from Cordoval/Cordoba in Spain
Peddler of fruits and vegetables
One who dresses the coat of a horse with a currycomb/One who tanned leather by oil/grease
Stevedore, dock worker who loads and unloads cargo
One who finds water using a rod or witching stick
A dealer in dry goods
One who drives a long, strong cart without fixed sides for carrying heavy load
A Surgeon’s assistant in a hospital
One who drives cattle or sheep
Peddler/Factor agent, commission merchant
A blacksmith, one who shoes horses
Fell monger
One who removes hair  or wool from hides in preparation for leather making
One who made bows and arrows
One who fulls cloth’ one who shrinks and thickens woolen cloth
A keeper of the goal, a jailer
Window glassman
Maker of hoes
One who combed out or carded flax
Dealer in hay
Keeper of fences
Itinerant peddler
Roof tiler
A farm laborer
A groom who took care of horses, often at an inn
One who made hoops for casks and barrels
Sells small wares
A farmer who cultivated the land
Fish peddler
One who had served his apprenticeship and mastered his craft, not bound to serve a master.
A skilled carpenter
Wool comber
Keeper of the cupboard
Washer woman
Leather maker
Maker of horse gear
A Steward
One who issued local currency
Seller of goods (ale, fish)
Herds cows
Ordinary Keeper
Innkeeper with fixed prices
Pattern Maker
A maker of clog shod with an iron ring.  A clog was a wooden pole with a pattern cut into end
Itinerant wanderer
A wig maker
A shyster lawyer
Crockery dealer
One who applied sheet lead for roofing and set lead frames for plain or stained glass windows.
Door keeper
Wrought Iron worker
Quarry worker (Rock quarry, etc.)
Hoist tackle worker
Seller of fish
Maker of rope or nets
One who makes, repairs or sells saddles or other furnishings for horses.
One who saws; carpenter; (runs a saw mill)
A minor or worthless author
Professional or public copyist or writer; notary Public
Election Judge
Seller of ready-made clothes in a slop shop
One who repaired shoes
A woman who spins or an unmarried woman
Maker of spurs
Country gentleman; farm owner; justice of peace
Stuff gown
Junior barrister
Stuff Gownsman
Junior barrister
Officer on merchant ship who is in charge of cargo and commercial concerns of ship
One who tans (cures) animal hides into leather
One who puts the tap in an ale cask
One who drives a team for hauling
Tide water
Customs inspector
An Itinerant tin pot and pan seller and repairman (watch tinker: one who repairs watches)
Toll bridge collection
Cleaner of cloth goods
A person who turns wood on a lathe into spindles
Tavern keeper, or one who provides food for military ship
Teamster not for hire
Wagon Maker
Customs officer or tide waiter; one who waited on the tide to collect duty on goods brought in.
Boatman who plies for hire
Operator of looms
Owner of a wharf
One who made or repaired wheels; wheeled carriages
Tinsmith; worker of iron who finishes or polishes the work
Street Sweeper
Bleach of Cloth
Workman, especially a construction worker
Farmer who owns his own land

Christened Names and Nicknames

  • Abe – Abel, Abner, Abraham, Absolom
  • AbbyAbigail
  • Al – Albert, Alec, Allen, Allensworth, Alvin
  • Alex – Alexander, Sanders
  • Armse – Armpse, Armistead
  • Bart – Barton, Bartholemew
  • Belle – Aribelle, Sybel
  • Ben – Benjamin, Benejah, Reuben
  • Bert – Albert, Burdette, Burrell, Burton
  • Ellen – Eleanor, Helen
  • Eliza – Elizabeth,Ella
  • Em – Emma, Emmie, Emeline, Emily
  • Eph – Ephraim
  • Etty – Harriett
  • Gail, Gale – Abigail, Abigale
  • Ginger – Regina, Virginia
  • Hal – Harold, Henry
  • Hetty – Harriett, Henrietta
  • Hobart – Hubert, Robert
  • Jean – Jeannie, Jenny, Eugenia,
  • Jack – John, Johnathan, Jonse (not Jones)
  • Jake – Jacob
  • Jenny – Jennifer
  • Joe – Johaner, Jones, Joseph, Josiah
  • Kager – Micajah
  • Lottie – Charlotte
  • Mattie – Martha
  • Nelly – Helen, Eleanor, Lanelle
  • Lige – Elias, Elija
  • Lish – Elisha
  • Luke – Lucus
  • Matt – Madison, Mathias, Matthew
  • Neil – Neal, Corneilous
  • Nick – Nicholas, Nichodemus
  • Nora – Eleanore, Eleanora, Lenora
  • Pats – Patsy, Martha
  • Perry – Peregiene
  • Polly – Mary
  • Rene – Rena, Serena
  • Rildy – Rilla, Rillie, Serrilda
  • Rube – Reuben
  • Sal – Sally, Salome
  • Si – Silas
  • Tillt – Matilda
  • Tish – Latita, Tab,Tabby
  • Tibbie – Tabitha
  • Tice – Matthias
  • Tobe – Tobias
  • Ty – Tyler, Tyrone, Tyson
  • Vern – Luverna
  • Zack – Zachariah
  • Zeb – Zebulon
  • Genealogy Symbols

    Genealogy Symbols

    • * born
    • (*) born illegitimate
    • 0         betrothed
    • 00 married
    • 0-0 Common Law Marriage
    • x  baptized or christened
    • 0/0  Divorced
    • +    died
    • x    died
    • buried
    • buried
    • (-) No further Issue
    • ++ No further Issue

    Abbreviated Words From Latin

    accountant accomptant -compt
    according accord
    account acct or accot
    administrator admint
    administratrix adminx
    aforesaid aforsd, forsd, afsd.
    captain captn, capt.
    church chh
    daughter dau, daur
    deceased dec d
    ditto do, or d0
    esquire esq, esqr, or esq
    executor exec r   exor
    gentleman gentl n, gent
    honorable hon ble, hon:
    improvement improv.
    inventory inventy, inv.
    Junior Jun r, Jr, Jun
    Messieurs Messrs, Mess
    namely viz, viz: vizx
    paid pd,
    personal person l,  p’son  l
    probate prob t
    probate register p.regist r
    received recd, recvd
    receipt rec t
    record rec d
    register reg r, regist r
    said sd
    senior Sen r, Sr., Sen:
    testament testam t, testa:
    the ye, y e, yere, yen, yis

    Meaning of Letters

    b. maker breeches-maker
    b’ k. black
    b’ s blacksmith
    c. make clock maker
    d. distillery
    f. ferry, forge, furnace
    f. m fulling mill
    f. master forage master
    g. gristmill
    gr. ground rent
    h. m. hemp mill
    m. mill
    m.w. millwright
    o.m. oil mill
    p.h’d. per head
    q.m. quarter master
    s. keeper shoe keeper
    s. m. saw mills
    s. master school master
    s. m’ r shoe maker
    s. still
    s. weaver stocking weaver
    t. k. tavern keeper
    t. y. tan yard
    w. weaver


    Anno domini In the year of our Lord
    Circa/ca/circ about
    et al and others
    item also/likewise
    liber/libro book
    nepos grandson
    obit/ob he/she died
    requiescat in pace/rip rest in peace
    sic Thus so
    testes witnesses
    ultimo/ult last
    uxor/us/vx wife